Analytical profiles of oxidative stress
Oxidation is a bio-chemical process of loss of electrons associated with another of reduction. Oxidation is fundamental to life, as it is part of obtaining energy in the cells. Oxidative stress appears when the intracellular oxide-reduction homeostasis is altered. This imbalance between pro-oxidants and anti-oxidants can arise due to an excessive production of reactive kinds of oxygen (EROs) and/or due to deficiency in anti-oxidant mechanisms, leading to cell damage, in the tissues and organs. Oxidative stress is responsible for premature aging and is involved in numerous illnesses (cardio-vascular, neurological, degenerative and certain kinds of cancer). The main reactions caused by EROs: Among the many reactions associated with excess production of EROs, the most significant and those linked to known adverse effects are:
• Oxidation of lipids: which plays a significant role in the process of atherosclerosis. Bio-markers of lipid peroxidation are: malonyldialdehyde (MDA), hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes.
• Oxidation of proteins: which gives rise to a break in chains and the formation of aggregates, with the consequent loss of protein activity. Bio-markers of this process are the products of oxidation of proteins or advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP).
• Oxidation of carbo-hydrates: which gives rise to the glycation of proteins or AGEs, which in turn can cause cellular lesions. A bio-marker for this process is glycosylted haemoglobin.
• Oxidation of the DNA: both at the level of mitochondrial DNA and nuclear DNA. This can cause spontaneous mutagenesis, and may be involved in carcinogenesis. A bio-marker for this process is 8-OH-deoxyguanosine
In the evaluation of oxidative stress it is also a good idea to analyse the pro-oxidant factors, for control, such as:
• Pro-oxidant metals: such as iron and copper.
• Proteins fixing pro-oxidant metals: such as ceruloplasmin, transferrin, ferritin, the percentage of saturation of transferrin and the total capacity to fix iron (CTFF).
The anti-oxidant mechanisms that help to combat excess production of EROs by neutralysing them are:
• Enzymatic anti-oxidants: such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase.
• Cofactors of anti-oxidant enzymes: such as zinc in erythrocytes and selenium.
• Endogenous non-enzymatic anti-oxidants: such as uric acid, bilirubin, albumin, the Q10 coenzyme and the total thiols.
• Exogenous non-enzymatic anti-oxidants: like vitamins A, E nd C, retinyl palmitate, carotenes, lutein and zeaxanthin, lycopene and beta-cryptoxanthin.
The profiles of oxidative stress available in our laboratory (see composition) are:
• Initial OR profile (code CH2)
• Basic OR profile (code ORB)
• Intermediate OR profile (code CH1)
• Advanced OR profile (code OR)
The evaluation of the oxidative state is especially indicated in:
• Persons who wish to control the process of aging.
• Persons who wish to prevent illnesses related with oxidative stress.
• Persons with a personal or family history of illnesses related with oxidative stress.
• We advise assessment of the oxidative state especially after the age of forty.
Sample: serum, plasma, blood (EDTA) and urine, depending on the analytical profile requested.